C语言学习网

Oracle中RMAN的BACKUP常用参数有哪些

发表于:2022-08-11 作者:安全数据网编辑
编辑最后更新 2022年08月11日,这篇文章给大家分享的是有关Oracle中RMAN的BACKUP常用参数有哪些的内容。小编觉得挺实用的,因此分享给大家做个参考,一起跟随小编过来看看吧。backup命令用来生成备份,可以在执行backu

这篇文章给大家分享的是有关Oracle中RMAN的BACKUP常用参数有哪些的内容。小编觉得挺实用的,因此分享给大家做个参考,一起跟随小编过来看看吧。

backup命令用来生成备份,可以在执行backup时为备份指定很多属性。官方文档上backup命令语法功能非常丰富,但是没有必要一一的掌握。先要了解一些基本用法,特殊的参数,用到的时候临时抱佛脚就行了。

下面我们挑一些常用的参数,做以说明。

BACKUP参数选项

full

服务器会话将所有块都复制到备份集中,只跳过从未使用过的数据文

件块。在备份归档重做日志或控制文件时,服务器会话不会跳过任何块。完全备份不是增量备份。

incremental

level

integer

服务器会话复制自上次n 级增量备份以来更改过的数据块,其中n 是从1 到4 之间的任意整数。要执行大于0 级的增量备份时,服务器进程会在BACKUP 命令中检查每个数据文件的0 级备份或0 级副本是否存在。如果指定增量,则必须在备份说明中设置以下参数之一:DATA FILE、DATA FILECOPY、TABLESPACE 或DATABASE。恢复管理器不支持控制文件、归档重做日志或备份集的增量备份。

filesperset

integer

如果指定了FILESPERSET 参数,恢复管理器就会将FILESPERSET值与计算的值(备份的文件数与通道数的比值)进行比较,并采用两者中的较小值,从而确保使用所有的通道。如果不指定FILESPERSET,恢复管理器就会将计算的值(文件数与分配的通道数的比值)与缺省值64 进行比较并采用两者中的较小值。当通道多于要备份的文件时,多余的通道将保持空闲。输入文件不能在通道之间进行分割。

skip

指定该参数可将某些数据文件或归档重做日志排除在备份集之外。该参数具有以下选项:

offline:将脱机数据文件排除在备份集之外。

readonly:排除属于只读表空间的数据文件。

inaccessible:排除由于I/O 错误而无法读取的数据文件或归档重

做日志。

maxsetsize

integer

以字节(缺省)、千字节(K)、兆字节(M) 或千兆字节(G) 来指定备份集的最大大小。恢复管理器会尽量将所有的备份集限制为指定的大小。

delete

input


在成功创建备份集后删除输入文件。仅当备份归档重做日志、数据文

件副本或备份集时才指定该选项。它相当于对所有输入文件执行

CHANGE . . . DELETE 命令。

include

current

controlfile

创建当前控制文件的快照并将其放置在该子句生成的各备份集中。
Format输出名称的格式。可以单独使用或组合使用格式参数。
PLUS ARCHIVELOG连带ARCHIVELOG一起备份
COPIES integer多重备份,即备份集写多份。integer 取值(1-4),默认是1

下面演示一下skip、filesperset、maxsetsize、COPIES等用法

  • skip 跳过只读文件

SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE IDX READ ONLY;Tablespace altered.RMAN> BACKUP DATABASE SKIP READONLY;Starting backup at 2015/07/09 03:39:49allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=1 device type=DISKskipping read-only file 6channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup setchannel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup setinput datafile file number=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/system01.dbfinput datafile file number=00002 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/sysaux01.dbfinput datafile file number=00005 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/example01.dbfinput datafile file number=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/undotbs01.dbfinput datafile file number=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/users01.dbfchannel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2015/07/09 03:39:49channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 2015/07/09 03:41:45piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/DEVDB/backupset/2015_07_09/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150709T033949_bstz45xk_.bkp tag=TAG20150709T033949 comment=NONEchannel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:01:56channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup setchannel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup setincluding current control file in backup setincluding current SPFILE in backup setchannel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2015/07/09 03:41:46channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 2015/07/09 03:41:47piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/DEVDB/backupset/2015_07_09/o1_mf_ncsnf_TAG20150709T033949_bstz7toh_.bkp tag=TAG20150709T033949 comment=NONEchannel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01Finished backup at 2015/07/09 03:41:47
  • FILEPERSET 限制备份集最多包含文件个数。

RMAN>  BACKUP DATABASE filesperset 2;Starting backup at 2015/07/09 03:45:11using channel ORA_DISK_1channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup setchannel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup setinput datafile file number=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/system01.dbfinput datafile file number=00006 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/idx01.dbfchannel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2015/07/09 03:45:11channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 2015/07/09 03:45:46piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/DEVDB/backupset/2015_07_09/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150709T034511_bstzg7tn_.bkp tag=TAG20150709T034511 comment=NONEchannel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:35channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup setchannel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup setinput datafile file number=00002 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/sysaux01.dbfinput datafile file number=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/users01.dbfchannel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2015/07/09 03:45:46channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 2015/07/09 03:46:11piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/DEVDB/backupset/2015_07_09/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150709T034511_bstzhc17_.bkp tag=TAG20150709T034511 comment=NONEchannel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:26channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup setchannel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup setinput datafile file number=00005 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/example01.dbfinput datafile file number=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/undotbs01.dbfchannel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2015/07/09 03:46:12channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 2015/07/09 03:46:27piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/DEVDB/backupset/2015_07_09/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150709T034511_bstzj460_.bkp tag=TAG20150709T034511 comment=NONEchannel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup setchannel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup setincluding current control file in backup setincluding current SPFILE in backup setchannel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2015/07/09 03:46:28channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 2015/07/09 03:46:29piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/DEVDB/backupset/2015_07_09/o1_mf_ncsnf_TAG20150709T034511_bstzjnbx_.bkp tag=TAG20150709T034511 comment=NONEchannel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01Finished backup at 2015/07/09 03:46:29
  • maxsetsize 设置备份集最大大

RMAN> backup database maxsetsize 200M;Starting backup at 2015/07/09 03:52:02using channel ORA_DISK_1RMAN-00571: ===========================================================RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============RMAN-00571: ===========================================================RMAN-03002: failure of backup command at 07/09/2015 03:52:02RMAN-06183: datafile or datafile copy /u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/system01.dbf (file number 1) larger than MAXSETSIZE


备份集的最大大小不能小于任意一个数据文件的大小。

RMAN>  backup database maxsetsize 1G;Starting backup at 2015/07/09 03:58:47allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=1 device type=DISKchannel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup setchannel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup setinput datafile file number=00002 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/sysaux01.dbfinput datafile file number=00005 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/example01.dbfchannel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2015/07/09 03:58:48channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 2015/07/09 03:59:23piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/DEVDB/backupset/2015_07_09/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150709T035847_bsv07r5l_.bkp tag=TAG20150709T035847 comment=NONEchannel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:35channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup setchannel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup setinput datafile file number=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/system01.dbfinput datafile file number=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/undotbs01.dbfinput datafile file number=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/users01.dbfinput datafile file number=00006 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/idx01.dbfchannel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2015/07/09 03:59:23channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 2015/07/09 03:59:58piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/DEVDB/backupset/2015_07_09/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150709T035847_bsv08vcs_.bkp tag=TAG20150709T035847 comment=NONEchannel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:35channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup setchannel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup setincluding current control file in backup setincluding current SPFILE in backup setchannel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2015/07/09 03:59:59channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 2015/07/09 04:00:00piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/DEVDB/backupset/2015_07_09/o1_mf_ncsnf_TAG20150709T035847_bsv09zlm_.bkp tag=TAG20150709T035847 comment=NONEchannel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01Finished backup at 2015/07/09 04:00:00
SQL> select name,bytes/1024/1024||'MB' from v$datafile;NAME                                               BYTES/1024/1024||'MB'-------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/system01.dbf         770MB/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/sysaux01.dbf         580MB/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/undotbs01.dbf        95MB/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/users01.dbf          16.25MB/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/example01.dbf        345.625MB/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/idx01.dbf       10MB
  • COPIES

RMAN> backup copies 2 database format '/backup/full_%U';Starting backup at 2015/07/09 04:06:29using channel ORA_DISK_1channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup setchannel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup setinput datafile file number=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/system01.dbfinput datafile file number=00002 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/sysaux01.dbfinput datafile file number=00005 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/example01.dbfinput datafile file number=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/undotbs01.dbfinput datafile file number=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/users01.dbfinput datafile file number=00006 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/idx01.dbfchannel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2015/07/09 04:06:29channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 2015/07/09 04:08:04 with 2 copies and tag TAG20150709T040629piece handle=/backup/full_3bqbj5m5_1_1 comment=NONEpiece handle=/backup/full_3bqbj5m5_1_2 comment=NONEchannel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:01:35channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup setchannel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup setincluding current control file in backup setincluding current SPFILE in backup setchannel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2015/07/09 04:08:05channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 2015/07/09 04:08:06 with 2 copies and tag TAG20150709T040629piece handle=/backup/full_3cqbj5p4_1_1 comment=NONEpiece handle=/backup/full_3cqbj5p4_1_2 comment=NONEchannel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01Finished backup at 2015/07/09 04:08:06

如果备份集放到默认的fast recovery area中,是不允许使用copies参数的

RMAN>  backup copies 2 database;Starting backup at 2015/07/09 04:11:37using channel ORA_DISK_1channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup setchannel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup setinput datafile file number=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/system01.dbfinput datafile file number=00002 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/sysaux01.dbfinput datafile file number=00005 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/example01.dbfinput datafile file number=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/undotbs01.dbfinput datafile file number=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/users01.dbfinput datafile file number=00006 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/devdb/idx01.dbfchannel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2015/07/09 04:11:37RMAN-03009: failure of backup command on ORA_DISK_1 channel at 07/09/2015 04:11:38ORA-19806: cannot make duplex backups in recovery areacontinuing other job steps, job failed will not be re-runchannel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup setchannel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup setincluding current control file in backup setincluding current SPFILE in backup setchannel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2015/07/09 04:11:39RMAN-00571: ===========================================================RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============RMAN-00571: ===========================================================RMAN-03009: failure of backup command on ORA_DISK_1 channel at 07/09/2015 04:11:40ORA-19806: cannot make duplex backups in recovery area

感谢各位的阅读!关于"Oracle中RMAN的BACKUP常用参数有哪些"这篇文章就分享到这里了,希望以上内容可以对大家有一定的帮助,让大家可以学到更多知识,如果觉得文章不错,可以把它分享出去让更多的人看到吧!

0