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PostgreSQL 源码解读(232)- 查询#125(NOT IN实现#3)

发表于:2022-12-09 作者:安全数据网编辑
编辑最后更新 2022年12月09日,本节介绍了PostgreSQL含有NOT IN查询语句实现ExecMaterial函数中部分依赖的函数。一、数据结构SubPlanState子计划运行期状态/* ---------------- *

本节介绍了PostgreSQL含有NOT IN查询语句实现ExecMaterial函数中部分依赖的函数。

一、数据结构

SubPlanState
子计划运行期状态

/* ---------------- *        SubPlanState node * ---------------- */typedef struct SubPlanState{    NodeTag        type;    SubPlan    *subplan;        /* expression plan node */    struct PlanState *planstate;    /* subselect plan's state tree */    struct PlanState *parent;    /* parent plan node's state tree */    ExprState  *testexpr;        /* 组合表达式状态;state of combining expression */    List       *args;            /* 参数表达式状态;states of argument _expression(s) */    HeapTuple    curTuple;        /* subplan最近的元组;copy of most recent tuple from subplan */    Datum        curArray;        /* most recent array from ARRAY() subplan */    /* these are used when hashing the subselect's output: */    TupleDesc    descRight;        /* 投影后的子查询描述符;subselect desc after projection */    ProjectionInfo *projLeft;    /* for projecting lefthand exprs */    ProjectionInfo *projRight;    /* for projecting subselect output */    TupleHashTable hashtable;    /* hash table for no-nulls subselect rows */    TupleHashTable hashnulls;    /* hash table for rows with null(s) */    bool        havehashrows;    /* true if hashtable is not empty */    bool        havenullrows;    /* true if hashnulls is not empty */    MemoryContext hashtablecxt; /* memory context containing hash tables */    MemoryContext hashtempcxt;    /* temp memory context for hash tables */    ExprContext *innerecontext; /* econtext for computing inner tuples */    AttrNumber *keyColIdx;        /* control data for hash tables */    Oid           *tab_eq_funcoids;    /* equality func oids for table                                     * datatype(s) */    Oid           *tab_collations; /* collations for hash and comparison */    FmgrInfo   *tab_hash_funcs; /* hash functions for table datatype(s) */    FmgrInfo   *tab_eq_funcs;    /* equality functions for table datatype(s) */    FmgrInfo   *lhs_hash_funcs; /* hash functions for lefthand datatype(s) */    FmgrInfo   *cur_eq_funcs;    /* equality functions for LHS vs. table */    ExprState  *cur_eq_comp;    /* equality comparator for LHS vs. table */} SubPlanState;

SubPlan
子查询计划

/* * SubPlan - executable expression node for a subplan (sub-SELECT) * * The planner replaces SubLink nodes in expression trees with SubPlan * nodes after it has finished planning the subquery.  SubPlan references * a sub-plantree stored in the subplans list of the toplevel PlannedStmt. * (We avoid a direct link to make it easier to copy expression trees * without causing multiple processing of the subplan.) * 查询规划器在完成子查询的规划后使用SubPlan节点替换表达式树中的SubLink节点。 * SubPlan引用了存储在高层PlannedStmt中的subplans链表中的sub-plantree。 * (避免使用直接链接,从而使得拷贝表达式树相对比较简单) * * In an ordinary subplan, testexpr points to an executable expression * (OpExpr, an AND/OR tree of OpExprs, or RowCompareExpr) for the combining * operator(s); the left-hand arguments are the original lefthand expressions, * and the right-hand arguments are PARAM_EXEC Param nodes representing the * outputs of the sub-select.  (NOTE: runtime coercion functions may be * inserted as well.)  This is just the same expression tree as testexpr in * the original SubLink node, but the PARAM_SUBLINK nodes are replaced by * suitably numbered PARAM_EXEC nodes. * 常规情况下,testexpr指向用于组合操作的可执行表达式(OpExpr、OpExprs的AND/OR树或者RowCompareExpr); * 左参数是原始的左表达式,右参数是PARAM_EXEC参数节点用以表示子查询的输出。 * 与原始SubLink节点的testexpr具有相同的表达式树,但PARAM_SUBLINK节点则使用合适的已编号PARAM_EXEC节点替代。 * * If the sub-select becomes an initplan rather than a subplan, the executable * expression is part of the outer plan's expression tree (and the SubPlan * node itself is not, but rather is found in the outer plan's initPlan * list).  In this case testexpr is NULL to avoid duplication. * 如果子查询成了initplan而不是subplan,可执行的表达式是外层plan表达式树的一部分。 * 这种情况下,testexpr为NULL以避免重复。 * * The planner also derives lists of the values that need to be passed into * and out of the subplan.  Input values are represented as a list "args" of * expressions to be evaluated in the outer-query context (currently these * args are always just Vars, but in principle they could be any expression). * The values are assigned to the global PARAM_EXEC params indexed by parParam * (the parParam and args lists must have the same ordering).  setParam is a * list of the PARAM_EXEC params that are computed by the sub-select, if it * is an initplan; they are listed in order by sub-select output column * position.  (parParam and setParam are integer Lists, not Bitmapsets, * because their ordering is significant.) * 规划器还派生了需要传入和传出子计划的值的链表。 * 输入值标识位表达式的"args"链表,在外层查询上下文中进行解析。 * (这些args通常是Vars,但原则上它们可以是任意表达式) * 这些值以parParam为索引给全局PARAM_EXEC参数赋值。 * setParam是PARAM_EXEC参数链表,通过子查询(如为initplan)计算所得。 * 它们按子查询输出列的位置进行排序组织为链表形式。 * (parParam和setParam是整型链表,而不是Bitmapsets链表) * * Also, the planner computes startup and per-call costs for use of the * SubPlan.  Note that these include the cost of the subquery proper, * evaluation of the testexpr if any, and any hashtable management overhead. * 同时,规划器计算SubPlan启动和每次调用的成本。注意:包括子查询正常解析testexpr的成本以及哈希表管理成本。 */typedef struct SubPlan{    Expr        xpr;//表达式    /* Fields copied from original SubLink: */    //从SubLink中拷贝而来    SubLinkType subLinkType;    /* see above */    /* The combining operators, transformed to an executable expression: */    //组合操作符,转换为可执行的表达式    Node       *testexpr;        /* OpExpr or RowCompareExpr expression tree */    List       *paramIds;        /* 参数IDs;IDs of Params embedded in the above */    /* Identification of the Plan tree to use: */    //Plan tree标识    int            plan_id;        /* Index (from 1) in PlannedStmt.subplans */    /* Identification of the SubPlan for EXPLAIN and debugging purposes: */    //EXPLAIN和debug目的的SubPlan标识    char       *plan_name;        /* A name assigned during planning */    /* Extra data useful for determining subplan's output type: */    //用于确定subplan输出类型的额外信息    Oid            firstColType;    /* subplan结果的第一个列类型;Type of first column of subplan result */    int32        firstColTypmod; /* 第一列的Typmod;Typmod of first column of subplan result */    Oid            firstColCollation;    /* 第一列的Collation;Collation of first column of subplan                                     * result */    /* Information about execution strategy: */    //执行阶段的相关信息    bool        useHashTable;    /* 是否使用哈希表存储子查询输出;true to store subselect output in a hash                                 * table (implies we are doing "IN") */    bool        unknownEqFalse; /* 如OK为T,如为未知则为F;快速处理null值;true if it's okay to return FALSE when the                                 * spec result is UNKNOWN; this allows much                                 * simpler handling of null values */    bool        parallel_safe;    /* 是否并行安全?is the subplan parallel-safe? */    /* Note: parallel_safe does not consider contents of testexpr or args */    /* Information for passing params into and out of the subselect: */    //用于给子查询传入和传出参数的信息    /* setParam and parParam are lists of integers (param IDs) */    //setParam和parParam是整型链表(param IDs)    List       *setParam;        /* initplan subqueries have to set these                                 * Params for parent plan */    List       *parParam;        /* indices of input Params from parent plan */    List       *args;            /* 以parParam值进行传递的表达式;exprs to pass as parParam values */    /* Estimated execution costs: */    //估算执行成本    Cost        startup_cost;    /* one-time setup cost */    Cost        per_call_cost;    /* cost for each subplan evaluation */} SubPlan;

SubLinkType
SubLink类型

/* * SubLink * * A SubLink represents a subselect appearing in an expression, and in some * cases also the combining operator(s) just above it.  The subLinkType * indicates the form of the expression represented: *    EXISTS_SUBLINK        EXISTS(SELECT ...) *    ALL_SUBLINK            (lefthand) op ALL (SELECT ...) *    ANY_SUBLINK            (lefthand) op ANY (SELECT ...) *    ROWCOMPARE_SUBLINK    (lefthand) op (SELECT ...) *    EXPR_SUBLINK        (SELECT with single targetlist item ...) *    MULTIEXPR_SUBLINK    (SELECT with multiple targetlist items ...) *    ARRAY_SUBLINK        ARRAY(SELECT with single targetlist item ...) *    CTE_SUBLINK            WITH query (never actually part of an expression) *  我们使用SubLink表示在表达式中出现的子查询,在某些情况下组合操作符会出现在SubLink之上。 *  subLinkType表示表达式的形式: *    EXISTS_SUBLINK        EXISTS(SELECT ...) *    ALL_SUBLINK            (lefthand) op ALL (SELECT ...) *    ANY_SUBLINK            (lefthand) op ANY (SELECT ...) *    ROWCOMPARE_SUBLINK    (lefthand) op (SELECT ...) *    EXPR_SUBLINK        (SELECT with single targetlist item ...) *    MULTIEXPR_SUBLINK    (SELECT with multiple targetlist items ...) *    ARRAY_SUBLINK        ARRAY(SELECT with single targetlist item ...) *    CTE_SUBLINK            WITH query (never actually part of an expression)  * * For ALL, ANY, and ROWCOMPARE, the lefthand is a list of expressions of the * same length as the subselect's targetlist.  ROWCOMPARE will *always* have * a list with more than one entry; if the subselect has just one target * then the parser will create an EXPR_SUBLINK instead (and any operator * above the subselect will be represented separately). * ROWCOMPARE, EXPR, and MULTIEXPR require the subselect to deliver at most * one row (if it returns no rows, the result is NULL). * ALL, ANY, and ROWCOMPARE require the combining operators to deliver boolean * results.  ALL and ANY combine the per-row results using AND and OR * semantics respectively. * ARRAY requires just one target column, and creates an array of the target * column's type using any number of rows resulting from the subselect. * 对于ALL,ANY和ROWCOMPARE,左操作符是与子查询目标链表长度一致的表达式链表。 * ROWCOMPARE通常有超过一个条目的链表;如果子查询刚好只有一个目标列,那么解析器会创建EXPR_SUBLINK * (同时所有在子查询之上的操作符会单独表示) * ROWCOMPARE, EXPR, 和MULTIEXPR要求子查询至少输出一行(如返回0行,则结果为NULL)。 * ALL,ANY和ROWCOMPARE要求组合操作符输出布尔型结果。 * ALL/ANY使用AND/OR语义来组合每一行的结果。 * * SubLink is classed as an Expr node, but it is not actually executable; * it must be replaced in the expression tree by a SubPlan node during * planning. * SubLink归类为Expr节点,但实际上并不是可执行的,必须在计划阶段通过SubPlan替代。 * * NOTE: in the raw output of gram.y, testexpr contains just the raw form * of the lefthand _expression (if any), and operName is the String name of * the combining operator.  Also, subselect is a raw parsetree.  During parse * analysis, the parser transforms testexpr into a complete boolean expression * that compares the lefthand value(s) to PARAM_SUBLINK nodes representing the * output columns of the subselect.  And subselect is transformed to a Query. * This is the representation seen in saved rules and in the rewriter. * 注意:在gram.y的裸输出中,testexpr只包含左表达式的裸形式,operName是组合操作符的字符串名称。 * 同时,子查询是裸parsetree。在解析分析期间, * 解析器转换testexpr为完整的布尔表达式用于比较左操作符值与PARAM_SUBLINK节点所代表的子查询输出列值。 * 子查询会转换为Query结构体。 * 在已存储的规则和重写时可见的表示形式。 * * In EXISTS, EXPR, MULTIEXPR, and ARRAY SubLinks, testexpr and operName * are unused and are always null. * 在EXISTS/EXPR/MULTEXPR/ARRAY SubLinks中,testexpr和operName不再使用通常是NULL值。 * * subLinkId is currently used only for MULTIEXPR SubLinks, and is zero in * other SubLinks.  This number identifies different multiple-assignment * subqueries within an UPDATE statement's SET list.  It is unique only * within a particular targetlist.  The output column(s) of the MULTIEXPR * are referenced by PARAM_MULTIEXPR Params appearing elsewhere in the tlist. * subLinkId当前只用于MULTIEXPR,在其他SubLinks中取值为0. * 该数字标识了在UPDATE语句SET链表中不同的多个赋值子查询。 * 只有在特定的targetlist内是唯一的。 * 出现在tlist其他地方的PARAM_MULTIEXPR参数依赖于MULTIEXPR的输出列。 * * The CTE_SUBLINK case never occurs in actual SubLink nodes, but it is used * in SubPlans generated for WITH subqueries. * CTE_SUBLINK不会出现在实际的SubLink节点中,但用于WITH子查询所产生的SubPlans中。 */typedef enum SubLinkType{    EXISTS_SUBLINK,    ALL_SUBLINK,    ANY_SUBLINK,    ROWCOMPARE_SUBLINK,    EXPR_SUBLINK,    MULTIEXPR_SUBLINK,    ARRAY_SUBLINK,    CTE_SUBLINK                    /* 仅用于SubPlans中;for SubPlans only */} SubLinkType;

SubLink
SubLink结构体

typedef struct SubLink{    Expr        xpr;    SubLinkType subLinkType;    /* see above */    int            subLinkId;        /* ID (1..n); 0 if not MULTIEXPR */    Node       *testexpr;        /* outer-query test for ALL/ANY/ROWCOMPARE */    List       *operName;        /* originally specified operator name */    Node       *subselect;        /* subselect as Query* or raw parsetree */    int            location;        /* token location, or -1 if unknown */} SubLink;

MaterialState
Material状态

/* ---------------- *     MaterialState information * *        materialize nodes are used to materialize the results *        of a subplan into a temporary file. *        materialize节点用于物化subplan的结果为临时文件。 * *        ss.ss_ScanTupleSlot refers to output of underlying plan. *        ss.ss_ScanTupleSlot指向underlyling plan的输出(subplan) * ---------------- */typedef struct MaterialState{    ScanState    ss;                /* its first field is NodeTag */    int            eflags;            /* 传递给tuplestore的capability标记;capability flags to pass to tuplestore */    bool        eof_underlying; /* 已经到达underlying plan的末尾?reached end of underlying plan? */    Tuplestorestate *tuplestorestate;} MaterialState;

二、源码解读

ExecMaterial
执行物化操作。

/* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *        ExecMaterial * *        As long as we are at the end of the data collected in the tuplestore, *        we collect one new row from the subplan on each call, and stash it *        aside in the tuplestore before returning it.  The tuplestore is *        only read if we are asked to scan backwards, rescan, or mark/restore. *      只要在tuplestore中数据收集结束时,就会在每次调用时从subplan中收集一条新行, *      并在返回之前将其保存在tuplestore中。 *      只要在往后扫描、重新扫描或标记/恢复时tuplestore才会读取。 * * ---------------------------------------------------------------- */static TupleTableSlot *            /* 从subplan中返回的结果;result tuple from subplan */ExecMaterial(PlanState *pstate){    MaterialState *node = castNode(MaterialState, pstate);//物化节点    EState       *estate;//运行期状态    ScanDirection dir;//扫描方向    bool        forward;//是否往前扫描    Tuplestorestate *tuplestorestate;//Tuplestorestate结构体指针    bool        eof_tuplestore;//是否完成?    TupleTableSlot *slot;//存储元组的slot    CHECK_FOR_INTERRUPTS();    /*     * get state info from node     * 从物化节点中获取相关信息     */    estate = node->ss.ps.state;    dir = estate->es_direction;//方向    forward = ScanDirectionIsForward(dir);//是否往前扫描    tuplestorestate = node->tuplestorestate;    /*     * If first time through, and we need a tuplestore, initialize it.     * 第一次,需要tuplestore并初始化     */    if (tuplestorestate == NULL && node->eflags != 0)    {        tuplestorestate = tuplestore_begin_heap(true, false, work_mem);        tuplestore_set_eflags(tuplestorestate, node->eflags);        if (node->eflags & EXEC_FLAG_MARK)        {            /*             * Allocate a second read pointer to serve as the mark. We know it             * must have index 1, so needn't store that.             * 分配用于mark的读指针             */            int            ptrno PG_USED_FOR_ASSERTS_ONLY;            ptrno = tuplestore_alloc_read_pointer(tuplestorestate,                                                  node->eflags);            Assert(ptrno == 1);        }        node->tuplestorestate = tuplestorestate;    }    /*     * If we are not at the end of the tuplestore, or are going backwards, try     * to fetch a tuple from tuplestore.     * 如果不在tuplestore的末尾或者正在往后扫描,尝试从tuplestore中提取一个元组     */    eof_tuplestore = (tuplestorestate == NULL) ||        tuplestore_ateof(tuplestorestate);    if (!forward && eof_tuplestore)    {        if (!node->eof_underlying)        {            /*             * When reversing direction at tuplestore EOF, the first             * gettupleslot call will fetch the last-added tuple; but we want             * to return the one before that, if possible. So do an extra             * fetch.             * 在EOF处反转方向,第一次的gettupleslot调用会提取最后添加的元组;             * 但如可能,希望返回在此之前的元组,执行额外的提取操作。             */            if (!tuplestore_advance(tuplestorestate, forward))                return NULL;    /* the tuplestore must be empty */        }        eof_tuplestore = false;    }    /*     * If we can fetch another tuple from the tuplestore, return it.     * 如能从tuplestore中提取另外一个tuple,返回     */    slot = node->ss.ps.ps_ResultTupleSlot;    if (!eof_tuplestore)    {        if (tuplestore_gettupleslot(tuplestorestate, forward, false, slot))            return slot;        if (forward)            eof_tuplestore = true;    }    /*     * If necessary, try to fetch another row from the subplan.     * 如需要(tuplestore末尾),尝试从subplan中提取另外一行     *     * Note: the eof_underlying state variable exists to short-circuit further     * subplan calls.  It's not optional, unfortunately, because some plan     * node types are not robust about being called again when they've already     * returned NULL.     */    if (eof_tuplestore && !node->eof_underlying)    {        PlanState  *outerNode;        TupleTableSlot *outerslot;        /*         * We can only get here with forward==true, so no need to worry about         * which direction the subplan will go.         */        outerNode = outerPlanState(node);        outerslot = ExecProcNode(outerNode);        if (TupIsNull(outerslot))        {            node->eof_underlying = true;            return NULL;        }        /*         * Append a copy of the returned tuple to tuplestore.  NOTE: because         * the tuplestore is certainly in EOF state, its read position will         * move forward over the added tuple.  This is what we want.         * 追加返回的元组到tuplestore中。         * 注意:因为tuplestore当前处于EOF状态,读取的位置会前移至已添加的tuple前面,这是我们希望看到的。         */        if (tuplestorestate)            tuplestore_puttupleslot(tuplestorestate, outerslot);        ExecCopySlot(slot, outerslot);        return slot;    }    /*     * Nothing left ...     */    return ExecClearTuple(slot);}

tuplestore_begin_heap
初始化tuplestore

/* * tuplestore_begin_heap * * Create a new tuplestore; other types of tuple stores (other than * "heap" tuple stores, for heap tuples) are possible, but not presently * implemented. * 创建新的tuplestore:目前仅实现了heap tuples。 * * randomAccess: if true, both forward and backward accesses to the * tuple store are allowed. * randomAccess : 如为T,支持往前和往后访问。 * * interXact: if true, the files used for on-disk storage persist beyond the * end of the current transaction.  NOTE: It's the caller's responsibility to * create such a tuplestore in a memory context and resource owner that will * also survive transaction boundaries, and to ensure the tuplestore is closed * when it's no longer wanted. * interXact : 如为T,磁盘上的存储文件在当前事务结束后也会一直保持。 * 注意:调用者有责任在事务边界内存活的内存上下文和资源拥有者中创建tuplestore并确保不再使用时销毁tuplestore。 * * maxKBytes: how much data to store in memory (any data beyond this * amount is paged to disk).  When in doubt, use work_mem. * maxKBytes:有多少数据需要存储到内存中(超长此大小的会分页到磁盘上)。 * 如存在问题,则使用work_mem。 */Tuplestorestate *tuplestore_begin_heap(bool randomAccess, bool interXact, int maxKBytes){    Tuplestorestate *state;    int            eflags;    /*     * This interpretation of the meaning of randomAccess is compatible with     * the pre-8.3 behavior of tuplestores.     */    eflags = randomAccess ?        (EXEC_FLAG_BACKWARD | EXEC_FLAG_REWIND) :        (EXEC_FLAG_REWIND);    state = tuplestore_begin_common(eflags, interXact, maxKBytes);    state->copytup = copytup_heap;    state->writetup = writetup_heap;    state->readtup = readtup_heap;    return state;}/* *        tuplestore_begin_xxx * * Initialize for a tuple store operation. * 初始化tuplestore */static Tuplestorestate *tuplestore_begin_common(int eflags, bool interXact, int maxKBytes){    Tuplestorestate *state;    state = (Tuplestorestate *) palloc0(sizeof(Tuplestorestate));    state->status = TSS_INMEM;    state->eflags = eflags;    state->interXact = interXact;    state->truncated = false;    state->allowedMem = maxKBytes * 1024L;    state->availMem = state->allowedMem;    state->myfile = NULL;    state->context = CurrentMemoryContext;    state->resowner = CurrentResourceOwner;    state->memtupdeleted = 0;    state->memtupcount = 0;    state->tuples = 0;    /*     * Initial size of array must be more than ALLOCSET_SEPARATE_THRESHOLD;     * see comments in grow_memtuples().     */    state->memtupsize = Max(16384 / sizeof(void *),                            ALLOCSET_SEPARATE_THRESHOLD / sizeof(void *) + 1);    state->growmemtuples = true;    state->memtuples = (void **) palloc(state->memtupsize * sizeof(void *));    USEMEM(state, GetMemoryChunkSpace(state->memtuples));    state->activeptr = 0;    state->readptrcount = 1;    state->readptrsize = 8;        /* arbitrary */    state->readptrs = (TSReadPointer *)        palloc(state->readptrsize * sizeof(TSReadPointer));    state->readptrs[0].eflags = eflags;    state->readptrs[0].eof_reached = false;    state->readptrs[0].current = 0;    return state;}

tuplestore_advance
从tuplestore前进一行

/* * tuplestore_advance - exported function to adjust position without fetching * * We could optimize this case to avoid palloc/pfree overhead, but for the * moment it doesn't seem worthwhile. */booltuplestore_advance(Tuplestorestate *state, bool forward){    void       *tuple;    bool        should_free;    tuple = tuplestore_gettuple(state, forward, &should_free);    if (tuple)    {        if (should_free)            pfree(tuple);        return true;    }    else    {        return false;    }}

tuplestore_gettupleslot
获取slot

/* * tuplestore_gettupleslot - exported function to fetch a MinimalTuple * 提取MinimalTuple * * If successful, put tuple in slot and return true; else, clear the slot * and return false. * 如成功,则把元组塞进slot中并返回T,否则清空slot返回F * * If copy is true, the slot receives a copied tuple (allocated in current * memory context) that will stay valid regardless of future manipulations of * the tuplestore's state.  If copy is false, the slot may just receive a * pointer to a tuple held within the tuplestore.  The latter is more * efficient but the slot contents may be corrupted if additional writes to * the tuplestore occur.  (If using tuplestore_trim, see comments therein.) * 如copy为T,则slot会接收拷贝之后的元组,独立于tuplestore的状态. * 如copy为F,则slot可能接收到tuplestore中的元组指针. */booltuplestore_gettupleslot(Tuplestorestate *state, bool forward,                        bool copy, TupleTableSlot *slot){    MinimalTuple tuple;    bool        should_free;    tuple = (MinimalTuple) tuplestore_gettuple(state, forward, &should_free);    if (tuple)    {        if (copy && !should_free)        {            tuple = heap_copy_minimal_tuple(tuple);            should_free = true;        }        ExecStoreMinimalTuple(tuple, slot, should_free);        return true;    }    else    {        ExecClearTuple(slot);        return false;    }}

tuplestore_gettuple
返回下一个元组

/* * Fetch the next tuple in either forward or back direction. * Returns NULL if no more tuples.  If should_free is set, the * caller must pfree the returned tuple when done with it. * 往前/后返回下一个元组。 * 如无更多元组,返回NULL。如should_free有值,调用者必须在处理完毕后释放返回的元组 * * Backward scan is only allowed if randomAccess was set true or * EXEC_FLAG_BACKWARD was specified to tuplestore_set_eflags(). * 在randomAccess设置为T或者指定EXEC_FLAG_BACKWARD时才允许。 */static void *tuplestore_gettuple(Tuplestorestate *state, bool forward,                    bool *should_free){    TSReadPointer *readptr = &state->readptrs[state->activeptr];//读取指针    unsigned int tuplen;    void       *tup;    Assert(forward || (readptr->eflags & EXEC_FLAG_BACKWARD));    switch (state->status)    {        case TSS_INMEM://内存中            *should_free = false;            if (forward)            {                if (readptr->eof_reached)                    return NULL;                if (readptr->current < state->memtupcount)                {                    /* We have another tuple, so return it */                    return state->memtuples[readptr->current++];                }                readptr->eof_reached = true;                return NULL;            }            else            {                /*                 * if all tuples are fetched already then we return last                 * tuple, else tuple before last returned.                 */                if (readptr->eof_reached)                {                    readptr->current = state->memtupcount;                    readptr->eof_reached = false;                }                else                {                    if (readptr->current <= state->memtupdeleted)                    {                        Assert(!state->truncated);                        return NULL;                    }                    readptr->current--; /* last returned tuple */                }                if (readptr->current <= state->memtupdeleted)                {                    Assert(!state->truncated);                    return NULL;                }                return state->memtuples[readptr->current - 1];            }            break;        case TSS_WRITEFILE://写文件            /* Skip state change if we'll just return NULL */            //如只需要返回NULL则跳过状态变换            if (readptr->eof_reached && forward)                return NULL;            /*             * Switch from writing to reading.             * 从写切换至读             */            BufFileTell(state->myfile,                        &state->writepos_file, &state->writepos_offset);            if (!readptr->eof_reached)                if (BufFileSeek(state->myfile,                                readptr->file, readptr->offset,                                SEEK_SET) != 0)                    ereport(ERROR,                            (errcode_for_file_access(),                             errmsg("could not seek in tuplestore temporary file: %m")));            state->status = TSS_READFILE;            /* FALLTHROUGH */            //进入读文件状态的处理逻辑        case TSS_READFILE:            *should_free = true;            if (forward)            {                //往前读                if ((tuplen = getlen(state, true)) != 0)                {                    tup = READTUP(state, tuplen);                    return tup;                }                else                {                    readptr->eof_reached = true;                    return NULL;                }            }            /*             * Backward.             * 往后读             *             * if all tuples are fetched already then we return last tuple,             * else tuple before last returned.             * 如果所有元组时已提取,则返回最后一个元组,否则返回先前最后返回的元组             *             * Back up to fetch previously-returned tuple's ending length             * word. If seek fails, assume we are at start of file.             * 往回向上提取先前已返回的元组结束长度字,如检索失败,假定处于文件的开始位置.             */            if (BufFileSeek(state->myfile, 0, -(long) sizeof(unsigned int),                            SEEK_CUR) != 0)            {                /* even a failed backwards fetch gets you out of eof state */                readptr->eof_reached = false;                Assert(!state->truncated);                return NULL;            }            tuplen = getlen(state, false);            if (readptr->eof_reached)            {                readptr->eof_reached = false;                /* We will return the tuple returned before returning NULL */                //在返回NULL前返回先前已返回的元组            }            else            {                /*                 * Back up to get ending length word of tuple before it.                 * 获取结束长度字                 */                if (BufFileSeek(state->myfile, 0,                                -(long) (tuplen + 2 * sizeof(unsigned int)),                                SEEK_CUR) != 0)                {                    /*                     * If that fails, presumably the prev tuple is the first                     * in the file.  Back up so that it becomes next to read                     * in forward direction (not obviously right, but that is                     * what in-memory case does).                     */                    if (BufFileSeek(state->myfile, 0,                                    -(long) (tuplen + sizeof(unsigned int)),                                    SEEK_CUR) != 0)                        ereport(ERROR,                                (errcode_for_file_access(),                                 errmsg("could not seek in tuplestore temporary file: %m")));                    Assert(!state->truncated);                    return NULL;                }                tuplen = getlen(state, false);            }            /*             * Now we have the length of the prior tuple, back up and read it.             * Note: READTUP expects we are positioned after the initial             * length word of the tuple, so back up to that point.             * 已获得优先元组的长度,读取之.             */            if (BufFileSeek(state->myfile, 0,                            -(long) tuplen,                            SEEK_CUR) != 0)                ereport(ERROR,                        (errcode_for_file_access(),                         errmsg("could not seek in tuplestore temporary file: %m")));            tup = READTUP(state, tuplen);            return tup;        default:            elog(ERROR, "invalid tuplestore state");            return NULL;        /* keep compiler quiet */    }}

三、跟踪分析

执行SQL:

[pg12@localhost ~]$ psql -d testdbTiming is on.Expanded display is used automatically.psql (12.0)Type "help" for help.[local]:5432 pg12@testdb=# [local]:5432 pg12@testdb=# select * from tbl; id | value ----+-------  1 |     2(1 row)Time: 2.678 ms[local]:5432 pg12@testdb=# select count(*) from t_big_null;  count   ---------- 10000001(1 row)Time: 679.972 ms[local]:5432 pg12@testdb=# analyze tbl;ANALYZETime: 64.442 ms[local]:5432 pg12@testdb=# analyze t_big_null;ANALYZETime: 434.702 ms[local]:5432 pg12@testdb=# [local]:5432 pg12@testdb=# select pg_backend_pid(); pg_backend_pid ----------------          18758(1 row)Time: 1.990 ms[local]:5432 pg12@testdb=# select * from tbl a where a.id not in (select b.id from t_big_null b);

启动gdb跟踪

(gdb) b ExecMaterialBreakpoint 1 at 0x720edb: file nodeMaterial.c, line 41.(gdb) cContinuing.Breakpoint 1, ExecMaterial (pstate=0x1230128) at nodeMaterial.c:4141        MaterialState *node = castNode(MaterialState, pstate);(gdb)

单步调试

(gdb) n49        CHECK_FOR_INTERRUPTS();(gdb) 54        estate = node->ss.ps.state;(gdb) 55        dir = estate->es_direction;(gdb) 56        forward = ScanDirectionIsForward(dir);(gdb) 57        tuplestorestate = node->tuplestorestate;(gdb) 62        if (tuplestorestate == NULL && node->eflags != 0)(gdb) 64            tuplestorestate = tuplestore_begin_heap(true, false, work_mem);(gdb) 65            tuplestore_set_eflags(tuplestorestate, node->eflags);(gdb) 66            if (node->eflags & EXEC_FLAG_MARK)(gdb) 78            node->tuplestorestate = tuplestorestate;(gdb) 85        eof_tuplestore = (tuplestorestate == NULL) ||(gdb) 86            tuplestore_ateof(tuplestorestate);(gdb) 85        eof_tuplestore = (tuplestorestate == NULL) ||(gdb) 88        if (!forward && eof_tuplestore)(gdb) p eof_tuplestore$1 = false(gdb)

进入tuplestore_gettupleslot

(gdb) n107        slot = node->ss.ps.ps_ResultTupleSlot;(gdb) 108        if (!eof_tuplestore)(gdb) 110            if (tuplestore_gettupleslot(tuplestorestate, forward, false, slot))(gdb) steptuplestore_gettupleslot (state=0x3069c18, forward=true, copy=false, slot=0x30687a8)    at tuplestore.c:10841084        tuple = (MinimalTuple) tuplestore_gettuple(state, forward, &should_free);(gdb)

进入tuplestore_gettuple

(gdb) steptuplestore_gettuple (state=0x3069c18, forward=true, should_free=0x7ffd18474ff7)    at tuplestore.c:906906        TSReadPointer *readptr = &state->readptrs[state->activeptr];(gdb)

tuplestore_gettuple->文件读写指针信息

(gdb) n910        Assert(forward || (readptr->eflags & EXEC_FLAG_BACKWARD));(gdb) p *readptr$2 = {eflags = 2, eof_reached = false, current = 0, file = 2139062143,   offset = 9187201950435737471}

tuplestore_gettuple->当前状态为TSS_INMEM

(gdb) n912        switch (state->status)(gdb) p *state$3 = {status = TSS_INMEM, eflags = 2, backward = false, interXact = false,   truncated = false, availMem = 4177896, allowedMem = 4194304, tuples = 0, myfile = 0x0,   context = 0x3067da0, resowner = 0x2fa62c8, copytup = 0xaba7bd ,   writetup = 0xaba811 , readtup = 0xaba9d9 ,   memtuples = 0x3051e90, memtupdeleted = 0, memtupcount = 0, memtupsize = 2048,   growmemtuples = true, readptrs = 0x3077f70, activeptr = 0, readptrcount = 1,   readptrsize = 8, writepos_file = 0, writepos_offset = 0}(gdb) p state->status$4 = TSS_INMEM(gdb)

tuplestore_gettuple->返回NULL

(gdb) n915                *should_free = false;(gdb) n916                if (forward)(gdb) 918                    if (readptr->eof_reached)(gdb) 920                    if (readptr->current < state->memtupcount)(gdb) p readptr->current$5 = 0(gdb) p state->memtupcount$6 = 0(gdb) n925                    readptr->eof_reached = true;(gdb) 926                    return NULL;(gdb) 1062    }(gdb)

tuplestore_gettupleslot->返回false

(gdb) ntuplestore_gettupleslot (state=0x3069c18, forward=true, copy=false, slot=0x30687a8)    at tuplestore.c:10861086        if (tuple)(gdb) 1098            ExecClearTuple(slot);(gdb) 1099            return false;(gdb)

回到ExecMaterial

(gdb) n1101    }(gdb) ExecMaterial (pstate=0x3068158) at nodeMaterial.c:112112            if (forward)(gdb) 113                eof_tuplestore = true;(gdb)

从outerPlan中获取一行(即从t_big_null中获取一行)

(gdb) n124        if (eof_tuplestore && !node->eof_underlying)(gdb) p node->eof_underlying$7 = false(gdb) n133            outerNode = outerPlanState(node);(gdb) ####define innerPlanState(node)        (((PlanState *)(node))->righttree)#define outerPlanState(node)        (((PlanState *)(node))->lefttree)###134            outerslot = ExecProcNode(outerNode);(gdb) p outerNode$8 = (PlanState *) 0x3068270(gdb) p *outerNode$9 = {type = T_SeqScanState, plan = 0x3037628, state = 0x3067eb8,   ExecProcNode = 0x6f802a , ExecProcNodeReal = 0x72b904 ,   instrument = 0x0, worker_instrument = 0x0, worker_jit_instrument = 0x0, qual = 0x0,   lefttree = 0x0, righttree = 0x0, initPlan = 0x0, subPlan = 0x0, chgParam = 0x0,   ps_ResultTupleDesc = 0x3068578, ps_ResultTupleSlot = 0x0, ps_ExprContext = 0x3068388,   ps_ProjInfo = 0x0, scandesc = 0x7fab449cae98,   scanops = 0xc3e780 , outerops = 0x0, innerops = 0x0,   resultops = 0xc3e780 , scanopsfixed = true,   outeropsfixed = false, inneropsfixed = false, resultopsfixed = true, scanopsset = true,   outeropsset = false, inneropsset = false, resultopsset = true}(gdb) p *outerNode->state$10 = {type = T_EState, es_direction = ForwardScanDirection, es_snapshot = 0x2f9cd10,   es_crosscheck_snapshot = 0x0, es_range_table = 0x3042130,   es_range_table_array = 0x3068108, es_range_table_size = 2, es_relations = 0x3068130,   es_rowmarks = 0x0, es_plannedstmt = 0x3042438,   es_sourceText = 0x2f74d88 "select * from tbl a where a.id not in (select b.id from t_big_null b);", es_junkFilter = 0x0, es_output_cid = 0, es_result_relations = 0x0,   es_num_result_relations = 0, es_result_relation_info = 0x0,   es_root_result_relations = 0x0, es_num_root_result_relations = 0,   es_partition_directory = 0x0, es_tuple_routing_result_relations = 0x0,   es_trig_target_relations = 0x0, es_param_list_info = 0x0,   es_param_exec_vals = 0x30680d0, es_queryEnv = 0x0, es_query_cxt = 0x3067da0,   es_tupleTable = 0x3068540, es_processed = 0, es_top_eflags = 16, es_instrument = 0,   es_finished = false, es_exprcontexts = 0x3068448, es_subplanstates = 0x3068950,   es_auxmodifytables = 0x0, es_per_tuple_exprcontext = 0x0, es_epq_active = 0x0,   es_use_parallel_mode = false, es_query_dsa = 0x0, es_jit_flags = 25, es_jit = 0x0,   es_jit_worker_instr = 0x0}(gdb) p ((PlanState *)node)->righttree$21 = (struct PlanState *) 0x0(gdb)

回过头来看执行计划,Materialize Node的lefttree是Seq Scan on public.t_big_null b,righttree为NULL。

[local]:5432 pg12@testdb=# explain verbose select * from tbl a where a.id not in (select b.id from t_big_null b);                                         QUERY PLAN                                        -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Seq Scan on public.tbl a  (cost=0.00..129156.33 rows=1 width=8)   Output: a.id, a.value   Filter: (NOT (SubPlan 1))   SubPlan 1     ->  Materialize  (cost=0.00..233310.68 rows=9999979 width=4)           Output: b.id           ->  Seq Scan on public.t_big_null b  (cost=0.00..144247.79 rows=9999979 width=4)                 Output: b.id(8 rows)Time: 7.681 ms

获取outerslot

(gdb) n135            if (TupIsNull(outerslot))(gdb) p *outerslot$16 = {type = T_TupleTableSlot, tts_flags = 16, tts_nvalid = 0,   tts_ops = 0xc3e780 , tts_tupleDescriptor = 0x7fab449cae98,   tts_values = 0x30684f0, tts_isnull = 0x30684f8, tts_mcxt = 0x3067da0, tts_tid = {    ip_blkid = {bi_hi = 0, bi_lo = 0}, ip_posid = 1}, tts_tableOid = 49155}(gdb) p *outerslot->tts_values$17 = 0(gdb) p outerslot->tts_values[1]$18 = 0(gdb) p outerslot->tts_values[0]$19 = 0(gdb) p *outerslot->tts_tupleDescriptor$20 = {natts = 1, tdtypeid = 49157, tdtypmod = -1, tdrefcount = 2, constr = 0x0,   attrs = 0x7fab449caeb0}

获取outerslot后,put到tuplestore中

(gdb) p *node$22 = {ss = {ps = {type = T_MaterialState, plan = 0x3040a60, state = 0x3067eb8,       ExecProcNode = 0x720ecf , ExecProcNodeReal = 0x720ecf ,       instrument = 0x0, worker_instrument = 0x0, worker_jit_instrument = 0x0, qual = 0x0,       lefttree = 0x3068270, righttree = 0x0, initPlan = 0x0, subPlan = 0x0,       chgParam = 0x0, ps_ResultTupleDesc = 0x3068690, ps_ResultTupleSlot = 0x30687a8,       ps_ExprContext = 0x0, ps_ProjInfo = 0x0, scandesc = 0x3068578,       scanops = 0xc3e720 , outerops = 0x0, innerops = 0x0,       resultops = 0xc3e720 , scanopsfixed = true,       outeropsfixed = false, inneropsfixed = false, resultopsfixed = true,       scanopsset = true, outeropsset = false, inneropsset = false, resultopsset = true},     ss_currentRelation = 0x0, ss_currentScanDesc = 0x0, ss_ScanTupleSlot = 0x3068868},   eflags = 2, eof_underlying = false, tuplestorestate = 0x3069c18}(gdb) n146            if (tuplestorestate)(gdb) 147                tuplestore_puttupleslot(tuplestorestate, outerslot);(gdb) p outerslot->tts_values[0]$23 = 0(gdb) n149            ExecCopySlot(slot, outerslot);(gdb) p outerslot->tts_values[0]$24 = 0(gdb) n150            return slot;(gdb) p outerslot->tts_values[0]$25 = 0(gdb) p slot->tts_values[0]$26 = 0(gdb) n157    }(gdb)

继续"物化"

(gdb) nExecProcNodeFirst (node=0x3068158) at execProcnode.c:446446    }(gdb) cContinuing.Breakpoint 1, ExecMaterial (pstate=0x3068158) at nodeMaterial.c:4141        MaterialState *node = castNode(MaterialState, pstate);(gdb) n49        CHECK_FOR_INTERRUPTS();(gdb) 54        estate = node->ss.ps.state;(gdb) 55        dir = estate->es_direction;(gdb) 56        forward = ScanDirectionIsForward(dir);(gdb) 57        tuplestorestate = node->tuplestorestate;(gdb) 62        if (tuplestorestate == NULL && node->eflags != 0)(gdb) 85        eof_tuplestore = (tuplestorestate == NULL) ||(gdb) 86            tuplestore_ateof(tuplestorestate);(gdb) 85        eof_tuplestore = (tuplestorestate == NULL) ||(gdb) 88        if (!forward && eof_tuplestore)(gdb) 107        slot = node->ss.ps.ps_ResultTupleSlot;(gdb) 108        if (!eof_tuplestore)(gdb) 124        if (eof_tuplestore && !node->eof_underlying)(gdb) 133            outerNode = outerPlanState(node);(gdb) p eof_tuplestore$27 = true(gdb) n134            outerslot = ExecProcNode(outerNode);(gdb) 135            if (TupIsNull(outerslot))(gdb) 146            if (tuplestorestate)(gdb) 147                tuplestore_puttupleslot(tuplestorestate, outerslot);(gdb) 149            ExecCopySlot(slot, outerslot);(gdb) 150            return slot;(gdb) p slot->tts_values[0]$28 = 2(gdb)

第一次执行时间较久,第二次相对快2个数量级,需要继续研究。

[local]:5432 pg12@testdb=# select * from tbl a where a.id not in (select b.id from t_big_null b); id | value ----+-------(0 rows)Time: 3633462.666 ms (01:00:33.463) --> 包括了debug的时间,实际时间是5s左右[local]:5432 pg12@testdb=# [local]:5432 pg12@testdb=# select * from tbl a where a.id not in (select b.id from t_big_null b); id | value ----+-------(0 rows)Time: 6.480 ms --> 第2+次就快很多[local]:5432 pg12@testdb=#

DONE

四、参考资料

N/A

0